Telescopes From the Ground Up

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Downloadable Documents for the Lesson
Other Resources Available at the Institute
Other Resources Available Outside the Institute
Books and Other Printed Material

Downloadable Documents for the Lesson :

Other resources related to the lesson:

One of the unique features of using the Internet is the ability to move quickly and easily to other links of related topics. If you find an appropriate, related link, don't forget to bookmark it for later use. These related links could play an important role in enhancing your lesson. Some of the links will provide the latest information on astronomy or more information for a research topic. Others will help introduce or follow up a specific lesson. Here are some Web pages from STScI related to the topic. The websites are listed in alphabetical order.

Other resources available at the Space Telescope Science Institute:

A Decade of Discoveries — Chronicles the scientific advances made by the Hubble Space Telescope during its first 10 years.

Behind the Pictures Explains how astronomers and image processing specialists turn the raw Hubble data into pictures. Are the colors you see in the Hubble pictures real colors? Check this site for the answer.

Browse Images by Category — Includes all the press release images, organized by subject, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope since 1990. All images include captions and some include background text, animations, and diagrams.

ExInEd — Exploration in Education — A program of the Special Studies Office at the Space Telescope Science Institute. The site includes reports and electronic picture books for the Macintosh and Windows operating systems.

Hubble Primer — Offers information about the Hubble Space Telescope's mission. The Primer is written in non-technical language and includes features such as: Planning Hubble's Day, Hubble's Top Science Findings, Preparation for a Career in Astronomy, and information on how to contact other NASA sites.

HubbleSite — Contains news releases of Hubble's science and remarkable discoveries, illustrated facts about the telescope and its instruments, and gorgeous pictures of stars, planets, galaxies, nebulae, and more.

Inbox Astronomy — News, notes and fun from the home of the Hubble Space Telescope.

Nuts and Bolts — A look at the Hubble Space Telescope’s spacecraft systems, instruments, and optics and how they work together.

Origins Education Forum — The Origins Program is the scientific study of the long chain of events from the birth of the universe in the Big Bang, through the formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, and the chemical elements of life, to the profusion of life on Earth and possibly elsewhere. The Forum is the public gateway to the research results, data, information, and human expertise behind this quest.

Space Telescope Science Institute home page — Provides a plethora of information about the Hubble Space Telescope and its instruments, data, and systems.

Other resources available outside the Space Telescope Science Institute:

Below you will find many links to information on the development of telescopes. The information comes from many sources other than STScI. Some of the resources are quite in-depth, and it is easy to get lost. It is suggested that you bookmark this page before you examine each source. That way, should you get lost, you can use the bookmark to get back to the main page. Since other parties run these sites, there is no way of guaranteeing their stability. You may occasionally find a site "under construction," or you may find that a site is completely gone. There is no way to control such situations because the sites are out of Space Telescope Science Institute's control. This page is only a fraction of the information available throughout the Web. If you do not find what you are looking for here, GO FIND IT!! (

Observing With NASA (OWN) NASA's space science researchers control some of the world's most sophisticated space probes and orbiting telescopes to get amazing images of objects in space. Now YOU can join them by operating your OWN ground-based "MicroObservatories" - real robotic telescopes that you command through this website.

Astronomical Instruments — Provides a history of astronomical instruments used in either the actual process of observing celestial objects or to standardize, record, or analyze the data obtained by the observational equipment.

CCD Astronomy — Outlines the use of charge-coupled devices in amateur astronomy.

The Galileo Project — Information about Galileo and his legacy.

History of Photography in Astronomical Measurements — Highlights the interplay of science and technology as astronomical photography developed. Stretches from the first daguerreotype of the Moon to Kodak’s hypersensitive emulsions.

History of the Telescope — A pictorial tour of historic telescopes.

i light — Unfold the mystery of light through an interactive, informative web experience catering to all ages.

Largest telescopes of the world — A list of the largest optical astronomical telescopes of the world at various times in history, from the invention of the telescope in 1609 up to the present day.

Major telescopes from Lord Rosse to about 1980 — Descriptions of select telescopes, including advantages and flaws.

NASA Homepage — Updated daily; provides links to all NASA-related information, resources, and centers.

Royal Observatory, Greenwich — Astronomical Instruments — Highlights instruments used for observing and measuring. Sponsored by the National Maritime Museum and Royal Observatory in Greenwich.

Science @NASA: It takes more than one kind of telescope to see the light — Includes a brief history of telescopes.

A Short History of the Astronomical Telescope — Presented in outline form, this history starts with an explanation of how the eye works and moves on to explain how telescopes work.

Space Science Education Resource Directory — A convenient way to find NASA space science products for use in classrooms, science museums, planetariums, and other settings.

StarChild — A service of the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics (LHEA) at NASA/GSFC. The site includes a diagram and images of the Hubble Space Telescope. Links to a glossary are also provided.

The Telescope — Presents highlights in the development of the telescope and the people behind the advances.

What's a Hubble? — Sponsored by Hypertech and created in partnership with Lockheed Martin, this site answers questions about the Hubble Space Telescope's mission, such as: Why do we have a space telescope? How do astronauts service the Hubble? How do scientists point the telescope in the right direction?

Where is HST Right Now? — The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center tracks the position of HST and other satellites. Users also can customize their view.

The World's Largest Optical Telescopes — Bill Arnett’s lists of large operational telescopes and those under construction, with links to individual telescopes.

Books and Other Printed Material:

Bely, Pierre. The Design and Construction of Large Optical Telescopes, Springer-Verlag, 2003. ISBN: 0387955127

Bickel, Charles L. et al, Physical Science Investigations, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA. 1979.

Carruthers, Margaret W. Hubble Space Telescope. Scholastic Library Publishing, 2003. ISBN: 0531122794

Chrismer, Melanie. Highlights from the Hubble Telescope: Postcards from Space. Enslow Publishers, Inc., 2003. ISBN: 0766021351

Christianson, Gale E. Edwin Hubble: Mariner of the Nebulae, University of Chicago Press, 1996. ISBN: 0226105210

Cole, Michael. Hubble Space Telescope: Exploring the Universe. Enslow Publishers, Inc. 1999.

Hakkila, Jon Eric. Hubble Space Telescope. Smart Apple Media, 2000. ISBN: 1583400478.

Kerrod, Robin. The Mirror on the Universe. Firefly Books, LTD., 2003. ISBN: 1552977811

King, Henry C. The History of the Telescope, Dover Publications, 2003. ISBN: 0486432653

Learner, Richard. Astronomy through the Telescope, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1981. ISBN: 0442258399

Maton, Anthea. Exploring the Universe, Prentice Hall, 1994.

NASA, Exploring the Universe with the Hubble Space Telescope, NP-126, GPO, Washington, DC.

NASA, Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission, Education Briefs, EB:115, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.

NASA, The Hubble Space Telescope Second Servicing Mission (SM-2), Hubble Facts FS-96 (03)-005-GSFC, NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771, 1996. This handout is very useful and specific to the mission.

NASA, Spaced Based Astronomy: Teacher's Guide with Activities EG-102, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC, August 1994. This guide has a wealth of useful activities that will give students opportunities to build simple telescopes, spectroscopes, and participate in other related hands-on experiences.

Osterbrock, Donald E. Pauper and Prince: Ritchey, Hale and Big American Telescopes, University of Arizona Press, 1993. ISBN: 0816511993

Panek, Richard, Seeing and Believing: How the Telescope Opened Our Eyes and Minds to the Heavens, Penguin Books, 1998. ISBN: 0140280618

Pasachoff, Jay M. Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe, Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, PA, 1991.

Sis, Peter. Starry Messenger: Galileo Galilei. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1996. ISBN 0374371911

Spangenburg, Ray; Moser, Diane; and Moser, Kit. The Hubble Space Telescope. Scholastic Library Publishing, 2002. ISBN: 0531118940

Voit, Mark. Hubble Space Telescope: New Views of the Universe. Abrams, Harry N. Inc., 2000. ISBN: 0810929236

Wright, Helen. Explorer of the Universe: A Biography of George Ellery Hale (History of Modern Physics), AIP Press, 1994. ISBN: 1563962497

Zelon, Helen. Endeavor Mission STS-61: Fixing the Hubble Space Telescope, Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2001. ISBN 0823957748.

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